Based on ice material properties and extensive studies concerning ice-structure contact problems, a ‘crushing contact’ algorithm is implemented in the simulator, allowing ‘compliant’ contacts to simulate the ice crushing physical process.

This feature is in sharp contrast to other simulators, which are based on the Discrete Element Method, in which no interpenetration is allowed. No interpenetration between bodies means ‘rigid’ contact, which often leads to unrealistically large contact forces.

The ‘compliant’ contact is implemented under the framework of multi-body dynamics, allowing for the simulation of multiple ice bodies’ interactions. This, among many advantages, brings in the following simulated features:

  1. Large amount of rubble accumulation
  2. Ice-ice contact induced failure